1058-1111: al-Ghazālī

Al-Ghazālī in Arabic calligraphy


The influential thinker al-Ghazālī dissects the arguments of Ibn Sina, al-Farabi and other thinkers who try to synthesize Aristotle with Islamic theoloy. He identifies three propositions so problematic that their advocates should be executed without chance to repent: The notions that the world was not created, that God is not omniscient, and that the rewards and punishments in the next life are only spiritual in character. Al-Ghazālī is often depicted as a strict opponent to reason, but modern scholars think he has been slightly misinterpreted.