Ibn Rushd, Latinized as Averroes, is one of the most influential thinkers of the Islamic Golden Age. The philosopher, jurist, and physician from Córdova is best known for his commentaries on Aristotle. He is persecuted by the sultan of Córdova in 1195, when the sultan needs orthodox support for his wars in Spain. But the draws back his edicts and Ibn Rushd can return to Marrakesh.
In his Decisive Treatise from 1198, Ibn Rushd argues that philosophy is mandated by the Qurʼān with it’s injunction to reflect on God’s design (59:2).