The Umayyads rules the Caliphate from their capital in Damascus between 661 and 750. The dynasty expands the Caliphate as far as the Indus river.
Around 684, Caliph ʿAbd al-Malik makes one of the first attempts to purge the Caliphate from heresy. The believe in free will is especially dangerous because it is believed to undermine the legitimacy of the caliphs. One heretic is crucified around 699.
The religious scholar Dirham is executed for heresy by the Caliph HishāmʿAbd al-Malik in 724.