754: The Graeco-Arabic translation movement

Aristotle depicted in the Kitāb naʿt al-hayawān manuscript (9th century)


The Graeco-Arabic translation movement is launched by Caliph Al-Mansur in 754. In the following centuries, ancient thinkers like Aristotle, Plato, Ptolemy, Euclid, Galen and Hippocrates are translated from Greek to Arabic.


In the 12th and 13th centuries, the ancient thinkers are translated from Arabic to Latin. From the Islamic world, the ancient ideas seep into the European universities and influence European scholars.