c. 480 – c. 406 BCE: Euripides and Parrhesia

Parrhesia or ‘uninhibited speech’ is another ancient Greek concept of free speech which means to speak freely, boldly or frankly. The term is first used by the playwright Euripides who depicts Athens as a place where all free males can speak freely when debating public issues.


In his play The Phoenician Women, Euripides declares that:


‘This is slavery: not to speak one’s thought’
– Euripides, The Phoenician Women